Mr Corbyn seized on leaked remarks when Mr Johnson described the Treasury as “the heart of Remain”.
The Labour leader quoted Mr Johnson’s warning that “there may now be a meltdown” in the Brexit negotiations.
He said: “Last week, he also took aim at the Treasury… calling them ‘the heart of Remain’.
“How much more damage is the Prime Minister going to do to this country before she realises that the important thing is to get a deal for the people, not one to appease the clashing giant egos of her Cabinet?”
Mr Johnson was seen bellowing with laughter and making comments to Mr Hammond.
Mrs May mocked Mr Corbyn over his planned pop festival.
She said: “The headline act are the shadow Chancellor and the Magic Numbers – that just about sums them up.”