The SNP claims the crucial EU Withdrawal Bill represents a threat to the authority of elected politicians in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The party says the bill will see Brussels’ responsibilities in areas which would normally fall to devolved governments initially transferred to Westminster.
And Scottish Brexit minister Michael Russell said today that Ms Sturgeon would recommend that Holyrood refuses to give its consent to the Bill “until the power grab is removed”.
The threat directly contradicts claims by Theresa May’s deputy, Damian Green, that the row was over.
After talks with representatives from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in the first formal meeting of the joint ministerial committee (JMC) for eight months, Mr Green had claimed “talk of a power grab is now behind us”.
Scotland and Wales have insisted the legislation undermines the principles of devolution, and warned they cannot recommend consent is given to the Bill as it stands.
At the committee meeting, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland agreed general principles on their role in any post-Brexit arrangements.
But speaking after the meeting, Mr Russell said: “We remain unable to recommend the Scottish Parliament consent to the EU Withdrawal Bill as currently drafted and will not be able to do so until the power grab is removed from the bill.
“I have and will continue to press for the amendments suggested by ourselves and the Welsh Government to be accepted, removing the power grab and providing a clear solution that respects devolution.”
The UK Government has said it is necessary to bring powers back to Westminster before devolving them in order to develop common frameworks and prevent trade barriers being created.
Mr Green described the committee meeting as “very constructive” and “successful” but rejected accusations of a power grab.
The First Secretary of State said: “I think you will see from principles that we have agreed today that talk of a power grab is now behind us.
“We’ve agreed that obviously there need to be ways in which we preserve the UK single market so we don’t damage businesses in Scotland or Wales or Northern Ireland.
“But also that we fully respect the devolution settlements, that we expect this to end with more powers going to the devolved administrations than they have had under the previous arrangement.”
Mr Russell welcomed the agreement with Mr Green that there would be another JMC before Christmas, but criticised the UK’s overall approach to talks with Brussels.
He criticised the pursuit of a hard Brexit outside the single market and customs union, saying it would cause long-term economic damage, and pressed for a decision on the post-Brexit rights of EU citizens.
Mr Russell added: “I hope that as discussion between the UK Government and the EU continue over the coming days we will see a way forward emerge.
“As I have made clear, it is crucial that Scotland’s interests are properly represented at future negotiations.”
The Welsh government also made clear it remains opposed to the Bill.
Finance Secretary Mark Drakeford said: “It was a constructive meeting which gave us a real opportunity to discuss the UK Government’s position in their negotiations with the EU27. We will meet again before Christmas.
“We agreed the principles that will underline any frameworks but that doesn’t mean that we have stepped back at all from our opposition to the Withdrawal Bill.
“The Welsh government will take part positively in the discussions that follow.”