At the same time, she promised to seek to avoid “damaging” workforce shortages or unnecessary red tape for firms.
But she said designing effective new immigration controls was part of getting “the best deal” from Brexit for Britain.
Ms Rudd said: “For my part, that means taking advantage of the opportunities in front of us, to build a new immigration system that will deliver on the result of last year’s referendum.”
Ms Rudd was a leading player on the pro-Remain side in the referendum campaign.
But the pro-Brexit result is acknowledged on all sides to have underlined people’s demand to end uncontrolled immigration from the European Union.
A leaked draft policy paper earlier this year showed the Home Office considering a cap or drastic curbs linked to salary or skills on the number of EU citizens allowed to come to the UK to do low-skilled jobs after Brexit.
Final proposals are due later this year.
Earlier this week, the Migration Watch UK group said the need for a continuing flow of EU workers in Britain had been “greatly exaggerated”.
Some employers have voiced concerns that Brexit will starve them of the workers they need, particularly in healthcare, farming, food processing and hospitality.
They also fear having to implement stringent new regulations governing migrants’ rights to work.
Ms Rudd promised in a newspaper article backing Theresa May against calls to quit: “I’m committed to working with business to make sure we don’t impose unnecessary burdens or create damaging labour shortages.”